and 800,000 in Brazil, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe.Brazil also includes some Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition in the colonial era.Tsinganoi, Zigar, Zigeuner), which likely derives from Athinganoi, the name of a Christian sect with whom the Romani (or some related group) became associated in the Middle Ages.Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkans, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia and Ukraine.From the Balkans, they migrated throughout Europe and, in the nineteenth and later centuries, to the Americas.The Romani population in the United States is estimated at more than one million.They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe, especially Central, Eastern and Southern Europe (including Turkey, Spain and Southern France).
Some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others (such as the Sinti, or the Romanichal) do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.
The total number of Romani people is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates).
Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani. It has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit words dam-pati (lord of the house, husband), dama (to subdue), lom (hair), lomaka (hairy), loman, roman (hairy), romaça (man with beard and long hair).
The Spanish term Gitano and French Gitan have similar etymologies.
They are ultimately derived from the Greek (Aigyptioi), meaning Egyptian, via Latin.