The first of these raids was at a Cairo boat party, where all the Egyptian gay men, fifty-two, were arrested and charged with violating these vague public morality laws.
The "Cairo 52" were arrested and tried on the original Prostitution and Debauchery law, as well as the newer Public Order and Public Morality code.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons in Egypt face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.
According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 95% of Egyptians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.
While the Mubarak regime did not support LGBT rights, it did not enact an obvious ban on homosexuality or cross-dressing in the criminal code.
It was during this time that the Human Rights Watch published a report on the laws used by the Egyptian government to criminalize homosexuality, the history of the laws, use of torture against gay and bisexual men by the police, and how such laws violate international human rights standards.
In light of public opinion, shaped by cultural and religious traditions, these public morality and public order-based laws have been used against LGBT people as well as anyone who supports more liberal attitudes.
During most of the rule of Hosni Mubarak, the Egyptian government did not support LGBT-rights legislation at home and objected to attempts, starting in the 1990s, to have the United Nations include LGBT-rights within its human rights mission.
The prevailing public opposition to homosexuality, is especially relevant to how the Egyptian legal system deals with sexual orientation and gender identity issues.
Egyptian law does not explicitly criminalize homosexuality or cross-dressing, but it does have several provisions that criminalize any behavior or the expression of any idea that is deemed to be immoral, scandalous or offensive to the teachings of a recognized religious leader.