- [large regions] - Eriador Gondor Harad Mordor Rhûn Rohan Wilderland - [notable First Age places] - Almaren, Beleriand, Cuiviénen, Gondolin, Thangorodrim, the Two Lamps - [other notable places] - Arnor, Barad-dûr (the Dark Tower), Erebor (the Lonely Mountain), Fangorn, Isengard, Khazad-dûm (Moria), Lindon & the Grey Havens, Lothlórien, Minas Tirith, Mirkwood, the Misty Mountains, Mount Doom, Rivendell, the Shire Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor (or sometimes Endórë) and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin respectively, sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Tolkien's most widely read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place entirely in Middle-earth, and Middle-earth has also become a short-hand to refer to the legandarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world.The various conflicts with Melkor (as well as by the action of the Valar on one occasion) resulted in the shapes of the lands being distorted.Originally, Arda began as a single flat world and the Valar created two lamps to illuminate it, Illuin and Ormal.It is envisaged in a flat Earth cosmology, with the sun, moon and stars revolving around it.Tolkien's sketches show a disc-like face for the world which looked up to the stars.The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in later years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron.
Aman and Middle-earth are separated from each other by the Great Sea Belegaer (analogous to the Atlantic Ocean).What is the historical fact behind the legend of Robin Hood?Did this potent outlaw folk hero really harass Guy of Gisborne and live in Sherwood Forest, or was he a mythical creation designed to express disatisfaction with unfair laws? Tolkien's map of Middle-earth, however, shows only a small part of the world; most of the lands of Rhûn and Harad are not shown on the map, and there are also other continents.In Tolkien's conception, Arda (Earth), was created specifically as "the Habitation" (Imbar or Ambar) for the Children of Ilúvatar (Elves and Men).The discoveries were all made under a car park that was formerly that of the 13th century Blackfriar¿s Monastery and later the the sixteenth century Old High School and seventeenth century Royal High School'The skull of the skeleton found immediately beneath the location of the Knight looks like that of a female and the remains found on the other side of the ornate slab belong to an infant from the same period.'Astonished by his unexpected discovery, Ross Murray of Headland Archaeology, who studied at a University of Edinburgh building yards from where the knight was buried, said: ‘We obviously knew the history of the High School Yards site while we were studying here.This find has the potential to be one of the most significant and exciting archaeological discoveries in the city for many years, providing us with yet more clues as to what life was like in medieval Edinburgh '.Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories.The First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them (hence the title The Silmarillion).Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves, Ents and most famously Hobbits.The early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings.