These Christians are now often referred to in English as the Oriental Orthodox Communion, thus treating "Eastern" and "Oriental" as not synonymous).
England, France, the Holy Roman Empire, Scandinavia, and much of the rest of Western Europe were in the Western camp, and Greece, Russia and many of other Slavic lands, Anatolia, and the Christians in Syria and Egypt who accepted the Council of Chalcedon made up the eastern camp. The most recent major split within the Catholic Church occurred in the 16th century with the Protestant Reformation, after which many parts of the Catholic Church rejected the leadership of Rome and reformed themselves, becoming Protestant.The majority of those who refused to accept this Council were Persian Christians, a Church now known as the Assyrian Church of the East.The next major break was after the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451). The terms adopted by this Council were unacceptable to many Christians who preferred to use a Christology formulated primarily in Alexandria.It also claims unbroken Apostolic Succession from St. It is both the largest and the oldest continuously operating institution in existence.In Western Christianity the principal groups that regard themselves as "Catholic" without full communion with the Pope are the Ancient Catholic Church, the Old Catholic Church, the Liberal Catholic Church, the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association, similar groups among Filipinos and Poles, and some elements of Anglicanism ("High Church Anglicans" or "Anglo-Catholics").Anglo-Catholicism maintains similarities to the Latin Rite of Roman Catholicism and related spirituality, including a belief in seven sacraments, Transubstantiation as opposed to Consubstantiation, devotion to the Virgin Mary and saints, the description of their ordained clergy as "priests" — addressed as "Father" — the wearing of vestments in church liturgy, sometimes even the description of their Eucharistic celebrations as "Mass".The development of the Anglo-Catholic wing of Anglicanism occurred largely in the nineteenth century and is strongly associated with the Oxford Movement.However, in view of the context, some difference of opinion prevails as to the precise connotation of the italicized word, and Kattenbusch, the Protestant professor of theology at Giessen, is prepared to interpret this earliest appearance of the phrase in the sense of mia mone, the "one and only" Church [Das apostolische Symbolum (1900), II, 922].From this time forward the technical signification of the word Catholic meets us with increasing frequency both East and West, until by the beginning of the fourth century it seems to have almost entirely supplanted the primitive and more general meaning. 155) to "the bishop of the catholic church in Smyrna" (Letter on the Martyrdom of St.The earlier examples have been collected by Caspari (Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols, etc., III, 149 sqq.). Polycarp, xvi), a phrase which necessarily presupposes a more technical use of the word, is due, some critics think, to interpolation. These doctors particularly insisted upon the note of Catholicism, and they pointed out that both the Old and the New Testament represented the Church as spread over all the earth. Augustine insists upon the consensus of Christians in the use of the name Catholic.On the other hand this sense undoubtedly occurs more than once in the Muratorian Fragment (c. " Whether they wish or no", he says, "heretics have to call the Catholic Church Catholic" ("De vera religione", xii).