The majority of those who refused to accept this Council were Persian Christians, a Church now known as the Assyrian Church of the East.
The next major break was after the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451). The terms adopted by this Council were unacceptable to many Christians who preferred to use a Christology formulated primarily in Alexandria.
While Rome claimed special authority and descent from St. Paul, who, all agreed, were martyred and buried in Rome, Constantinople had become the residence of the Emperor and the Senate, and the churches at Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria were all older than Rome.
Antioch furthermore was considered to have been the see of St. The first great rupture in the Catholic Church followed the Council of Ephesus (AD 431), which affirmed the Virgin Mary as Theotokos.
Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110.
The words run: Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal [katholike] Church.
The patriarchs of these Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches are autocephalous hierarchs, which roughly means that each of them is independent of the direct oversight of another bishop (although still subject, according to their distinct traditions, either to the synod of bishops of each one’s jurisdiction, or only to a common decision of the patriarchs of their own communion).
They are willing to concede a primacy of honor to the Bishop of Rome, but not to accept monarchical claims.
The several churches of Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy each consider themselves to be the universal and true Catholic Church, and typically regard the other of these families and the Western Catholics as heretical and as having left the One Holy Catholic, and Apostolic Church.The Liberal Catholic Church, founded when Charles W.Leadbeater, formerly a clergyman in the Church of England, and later one of the heads of the Theosophical Society, was ordained as a bishop in the Old Catholic Church, additionally incorporates significant elements of theosophy into its doctrinal faith.Doctrinal disputes, including that about the Filioque clause, conflicts between methods of Church government, and perhaps the evolution of separate rites and practices, precipitated a split in AD 1054 that divided the Catholic Church once again, this time between a "West" and an "East".England, France, the Holy Roman Empire, Scandinavia, and much of the rest of Western Europe were in the Western camp, and Greece, Russia and many of other Slavic lands, Anatolia, and the Christians in Syria and Egypt who accepted the Council of Chalcedon made up the eastern camp. The most recent major split within the Catholic Church occurred in the 16th century with the Protestant Reformation, after which many parts of the Catholic Church rejected the leadership of Rome and reformed themselves, becoming Protestant.Anglo-Catholicism maintains similarities to the Latin Rite of Roman Catholicism and related spirituality, including a belief in seven sacraments, Transubstantiation as opposed to Consubstantiation, devotion to the Virgin Mary and saints, the description of their ordained clergy as "priests" — addressed as "Father" — the wearing of vestments in church liturgy, sometimes even the description of their Eucharistic celebrations as "Mass".The development of the Anglo-Catholic wing of Anglicanism occurred largely in the nineteenth century and is strongly associated with the Oxford Movement.All of the preceding groups, including Protestants, consider themselves to be fully and completely Catholic.All of them claim to be either part of the Catholic Church or the only Catholic Church.It also claims unbroken Apostolic Succession from St. It is both the largest and the oldest continuously operating institution in existence.In Western Christianity the principal groups that regard themselves as "Catholic" without full communion with the Pope are the Ancient Catholic Church, the Old Catholic Church, the Liberal Catholic Church, the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association, similar groups among Filipinos and Poles, and some elements of Anglicanism ("High Church Anglicans" or "Anglo-Catholics").